The Research Behind the LTSI
Brief description of the Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) development processes.
No other company can offer you the 15 year track record of scientific research behind their product. Following is a short description of that stream of research as well as scientific articles.
Version 1: This instrument emerged from earlier research that produced version 1 of the instrument (see Holton et al., 1997 for a complete report on the development of that instrument). Briefly, version 1 evolved from Rouiller and Goldstein’s (1993) 63-item instrument that was modified to fit the organization involved in the earlier study. Modification included 1) deletion of 14 items that were not appropriate for that organization; 2) addition of seven items, constructed to represent an opportunity to perform construct which was not included in Rouiller & Goldstein’s (1993) instrument; and 3) addition of ten other items constructed to strengthen certain scales or to replace deleted items with ones more appropriate for that organization. These changes resulted in the testing of a 66-item instrument.
Common factor analysis with oblique rotation identified nine constructs: supervisor support, opportunity to use, transfer design, peer support, supervisor sanction, personal outcomes-positive, personal outcomes-negative, change resistance, and content validity. All of them are consistent with transfer of workplace learning research. Four items were dropped leaving a 62 item instrument. Version 1 of the instrument has shown initial evidence of content, construct and criterion validity (Bates, Holton, &Seyler, in press; Seyler, Holton, Bates &Carvalho, 1998).
Version 2: Version 1 was the foundation for version 2 of the instrument. Because version 1 had a disproportionate numbers of items across constructs (e.g. 23 items measuring supervisor support), we first reduced the number of items by selecting only the highest loading items from its large scales. Next, we examined the literature to identify other constructs that had not previously been measured. Important additions included constructs such as performance self-efficacy (Gist, 1987), expectancy related constructs (transfer effort-performance and performance-outcomes) , personal capacity for transfer (Ford, Quinones, Sego & Sorra, 1992), feedback/performance coaching, and general motivation to transfer.
We then fit these constructs into the theoretical framework of the HRD Research and Evaluation Model (Holton, 1996). Following Noe & Schmitt (1986), the macro-structure of that model hypothesizes that HRD outcomes are a function of ability, motivation and environmental influences at three outcome levels: learning, individual performance, and organizational performance. Secondary influences are also included, particularly that impact upon motivation.The result was 16 factors divided into 3 groups that represent catalysts or barriers to transfer.
Version 3: Latest version of the LTSI emerged from 10 years of research around the world. Combining data from 6,120 people in 17 countries and 14 different languages, we have been able to reduce the length of the instrument significantly. More importantly, we have identified survey items that work across cultures and languaqes as diverse as Chinese, Malaysian, Farsi, Arabic, Greek, French, Spanish--and more. The 16 factors have been confirmed in all these languages.
Thus, version 3 represents 15 years of research and is a very stable and well validated instrument. No other survey in the world has this track record and this much research behind it.
The technical and research support for the Learning Transfer System Inventory is contained in numerous journal articles we have published on studies we have conducted. Following are all the scholarly journal articles we have published while creating our system.
Bates, R.A., Holton, E.F. &Hatala, J.P. (2012). A revised learning transfer system inventory (LTSI): factorial replication, item reduction and validation. Human Resource Development International, 15(5), 549-569.
Velada, R., Caetano, A., Bates, R. & Holton, E. F. III. (2009) Learning transfer in the training context-Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal.Journal of European Industrial Training, 30, 635-656.
Yaghi, A., Goodman, D., Holton, E. F. III, Bates, R. A. (2008). Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory: A Study of Supervisors in the Public Sector in Jordan. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 19, 241-262.
Kauffeld, S., Bates, R. A., Holton, E. F. III, & Muller, A. C. (2008). Das deutsche Lerntransfer-System Inventar (GLTSI): psychometrische Uberprufung der deutschesprachigen Version. ZeitschriftfürPesonalpsychologie, 7 (1). (German translation and validation of the LTSI)
Devos, Christelle, Dumay, Xavier, Bonami, Michel, Bates, Reid & Holton, Elwood. (2007). The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) Translated into French: Internal Structure and Predictive Validity. International Journal of Training and Development, 11, 181-199.
Bates, R. A., Kauffeld, S., & Holton, E. F. III. (2007). Factor structure and predictive validity of the German version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory.Journal of European Industrial Training.
Holton, E. F. III, Bates, R. A. &Bookter, A. (2007) Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Learning Transfer System Inventory. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 18, 385-419.
Yamkovenko, B., Holton, E.. F. III & Bates, R. A. (2007) The Learning Transfer System Inventory (LTSI) in Ukraine: The Cross-Cultural Validation of the Instrument. Journal of European Industrial Training.
Hatala, J.P. & Fleming, P. (2007). Making barriers to training transfer visible: Social Network Analysis as a method for facilitating the transfer of training. Human Resource Development Review, 6(1), 33-63.
Song, Z., Marides, G., Holton, E. F. III, & Bates, R. (2006). An exploratory study of Hotel learning transfer in Haikou, China. China Tourism Research, 12, 423-464.
Khasawneh, S., Bates, R. A., & Holton, E. F. III (2006).Construct validation of an Arabic version of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory for use in Jordan. International Journal of Training and Development, 10(3), 180-194.
Chen, Hsin-Chih, Holton, E. F. III, & Bates, R. A. (2006) Situational and demographic influences on transfer system characteristics in organizations. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 19(3), 7-26.
Chen, Hsin-Chih, Holton, E. F. III, & Bates, R. A. (2005) Development and validation of the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory in Taiwan.Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16, 55-84.
Holton, E. F. III (2005) Holton's Evaluation Model: New Evidence and Construct Elaborations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 7(1), 37-54.
Bates, R. & Khasawnwh, S. (2005). Organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate and perceived innovation in Jordanian organizations. International Journal of Training and Development, 9, 96-109.
Bates, R. A. & Holton, E. F. III (2004).Linking workplace literacy skills and transfer system perceptions. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15, 153-170.
Holton, E. F. III, Chen, H. C., & Naquin, S. S. (2003) An examination of learning transfer systems across organizational settings. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14, 459-482.
Ruona, W. E. A., Leimbach, M., Holton, E. F. III, & Bates, R. A. (2002) The relationship between learner utility reactions and predicted learning transfer among trainees. International Journal of Training and Development, 6(4) 218-228.
Holton, E. F. III, Bates, R. A., & Ruona, W. E. A. (2000). Development of a Generalized Learning Transfer System Inventory. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11, 333-360.
*Received the Richard A. Swanson Research Excellence Award from the Academy of Human Resource Development for the most outstanding article published in Human Resource Development Quarterly during 2000.
Holton, E. F. III (2000). What's really wrong: diagnosis for learning transfer system change. In E. F. Holton III, T. T. Baldwin, & S. S. Naquin (Eds.). Managing and changing learning transfer systems, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2(4), 7-22.
Bates, R. A., Holton, E. F. III, & Seyler, D. L. (2000) The Role of Interpersonal Factors in the Application of Computer-Based Training in an Industrial Setting. Human Resource Development International, 3, 19-42.
Seyler, D. L., Holton, E. F. III, Bates, R. A., Burnett, M. F., &Carvalho, M. A. (1998). Factors affecting motivation to use training.International Journal of Training and Development, 2, 2-16.
Holton, E. F. III, Bates, R., Seyler, D., &Carvalho, M. A. (1997) Construct validation of a transfer climate instrument.Human Resource Development Quarterly, 8, 95-113